write two short paragraph

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    In a short paragraph
    using at least one academic source, answer by extending,
    refuting/correcting, or adding additional nuance to each discussion

Insurance Coverage

Healthcare reform in the United States in 2010 has
strengthened the importance of obligatory health insurance. However,
there are some ethical and political issues that arise as a result of
the fact that if an individual mandate does not cover Americans’
health insurance, they must overpay and pay a tax penalty. The ethics
of health insurance coverage manifests itself in the duty of all
Americans to purchase an insurance policy that demonstrates the
principle of respect for people. From an ethical point of view,
according to the Affordable Care Act, health insurance eliminates
unfair fluctuations or increases in the insurance rate in private
companies upholding the principle of fairness. Thus, clients have a
wide choice of private or public insurance companies (Morden, 2017).
After all, according to ethical standards, an insurer must take care
of their financial reliability and refuse to pursue a policy of
unreasonable overestimation of insurance rates. Further, ACA health
insurance supports the principle of benevolence since insurance
covers illnesses and diseases such as cancer, which previous
legislation made difficult to obtain for covering treatment.

The politics of mandating
that everyone has health insurance coverage is reasonable because a
lack of health insurance leads to tax penalties and increased medical
expenses. If a US resident cannot obtain private insurance and is not
covered by state insurance, they are forced to pay for their
treatment on their own. Paying for medical services in the US out of
pocket is the least cost-effective method of financing for patients
because medical services are expensive, and usually few people can
afford to pay for them. Mandatory insurance has made progress for
health care institutions as the rate of uninsured population has
decreased as well as the proportion of minors who cannot afford care.
Healthcare facilities are receiving an increase in financial security
and a reduction in debt to recover economically, which improves
health care delivery (Obama, 2016, p.527). Therefore, mandatory
insurance policies are beneficial for patients.

Affordable Care Act is a detailed part of our legislation and
impacts the the non-group insurance market in the United
States, and states and mandates that the population have health
insurance, which significantly expands public insurance and
subsidizes private insurance coverage, it also raises revenues from a
variety of new taxes, and in turn reduces and reorganizes spending
under the nation’s largest health insurance plan, which is
Medicare. This policy remains a debate even to this day.

The Affordable Care Act
essentially provides income-related premium assistance and
cost-sharing to increase health care access and provide
financial protection for those persons with lower incomes (Martin,
2010). This then will reduce out-of-pocket expenses for covered
benefits. The law will vary cost-sharing standards as well as any
premium credits by poverty level to limit a person’s risk of
incurring high out-of-pocket expenses and to make health care more
affordable. The reforms then expand coverage and reduce the number of
insured people based on exposure to medical care costs that are high
relative to their incomes.

I have mix feelings
regarding the ACA bill. One of the main reasons why I have a mix
emotion is because the individuals that are uninsured are
because they cannot afford their premiums. Having to pay their missed
payments means they simply will not have insurance and the country is
right back where it was before ACA. Another aspect of the AHCA that I
do not agree with is that the cost of coverage is based on age, the
older a person, the higher the premium. Under the ACA an older person
could be charged up to 3 times as much more for insurance coverage
than a younger person. Under the AHCA, an older person can be charged
up to five times as much (E-Health Insurance, 2019) It does not allow
for a pre existing condition clause to be enforced, but it paves the
way to penalize the consumer having co morbidities as they are more
frequent as we aged. Also the elderly are not as financially free as
working younger persons, so the chances of being able to pay the
premiums are, again, lower.

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