Discussion with 2 other students with 1 paragraph EACH that has least 8 sentences in your response for each student).
Please write the name of your fellow student to whom you are responding in the beginning of the post. When writing your response posts be sure that they are relevant to the assignment and utilize the material. Make connections to their learning. Your responses should enhance the discussion.
Chapter 8: Hey again, I will be discussing with you what I had found very crucial in regard to the Biosocial Developmental aspects in a child from the ages of 2-6 years old. This particular part interests very much so as I have a 5 year old little sister which I adore oh so much and simply waking up and seeing her brightens my day. As children grow up right in front of our very own eyes, it is amazing to see how their body goes through changes as that one family member who hasn’t seen them may comment “look at how tall you’ve grown since I’ve last saw you (I used to get that a lot as I was an inside kid who grew up to be 6 feet tall). Anyway the obvious changes are on the outside present such as their height or the weight but they grow up simultaneously in the inside as well. It’s so much more then just the simple thinking of knowing the rights from wrong, A particular process known as myelination gives these young children develops and helps the development of their memory, the impulsive controls, as well as their thinking process (PPT 12). The young child may also have positive changes within their motor skills as you will notice accomplishments along the way of their growth they achieve as they reach a particular age such as using scissors or tying their shoes (Pg 255).
I love the aspect of their development known as Artistic Expression as art is given life by the artist and what better way then to be given life by a 5 year old? It might not be put in a museum or at the Getty but it can definitely be on display on my bedside with the title ‘My boy and I’ (yes I am the boy my little sister refers to). From the textbook, “Perhaps the immaturity of the prefrontal cortex is a blessing, allowing the creativity without self-criticism” is an amazing statement and very realistic as we tend to get older and may have expectations fro ourselves to strive for perfection but these young children can happily express their selves through coloring, drawing, or scribbles on a paper (PPT 26/Pg260-261).I had also found Prevention quite important as there is 3 levels within prevention with a particular scenario desired in each. For example, the Primary Prevention has placed limitations upon the possibilities of an injury occurring, whereas Secondary Prevention avert harm away from the child immediately in the time and the moment, and lastly the Tertiary Prevention which prevents the occurrence of any further injury or damage happening to the child after it had already happened )PPT 32/Pg 264).
Chapter 9: This next Chapter enlightens us to become knowledgeable in the Cognitive Development of children in the age rage from 2-6. right from the start, you are thrown into the world of Preoperational Thought which shows four subtopics such as Centration, Focus on appearance, static reasoning, and lastly Irreversibility. All four of these are essentially limitations which work as follows; a child primarily sets their whole focus upon one aspect of something in particular, whereas in Focus on Appearance in which asserts judging a book by its cover to label. Static reasoning has the ideology of something staying exactly the way it is and lastly the Irreversibility showing us how the removal of something alike tomato in a burger as an example has thus contaminated the whole burger so now it will have the taste of tomato permanently (PPT 4/5 & Pg 278-279). Vygotsky has developed several components in which children develop such as mentoring as well as scaffolding. In these components, mentoring gives these children challenges to strive for with letting them guiding their own participation without the adult or mentoring figure taking over with assisting and encouraging motivation to be an effective mentor (Pg 282/PPT 17). Then with the concept of Scaffolding, this kind of support is catered to the child in one or more subjects the child needs to be assisted in their development (Pg 282). In a child’s development, they also grasp the idea of language learning throughout their early lives. In this stage, in the jump from every year the children get the knowledge to form sentences out of words as their vocabulary will increase as they get older along with their grammar as well as pronunciation of words (PPT 30/Pg 290-291). A quite interesting topic to note is the difference between teacher-directed programs as well as child-centered which has differentiating tactics used to teach the students. For example, predominately in the United States we have teacher-directed with this teacher being the authority figure to help develop our children through instruction whereas the child-centered promoted the children problem-solving on their own with adults assisting as “learning comes from within through social skills and creative play being essential” (PPT 45/Pg 299-302).
Chapter 10: In this chapter, we will be informed of the Psychological Development of children in their early childhood. I find emotional regulation to be quite important as this can be a big change in regards to their future as this controls how they react with their emotions being expressed (PPT 3/Pg 311-312). Within their emotional development, the self-concept is important as this essentially fills them with understanding themselves and simultaneously incorporates their self-esteem, personality, personal traits, and their appearance physically (PPT 5/Pg 312). I had also found quite interesting the ideology of seeking emotional balance with the problems in regarding externally as well as Internally. As Externalizing has the child throw a temper tantrum for example to show how they feel in this powerful expression by screaming whereas Internalizing has the child having these emotions on the inside as this impacts the feelings and the way they may feel such as embarrassment, ashamed, or worthless (PPT 9). These two problems are gender-neutral although it is associated with males tend to express external problems as females tend to Internalize even this is definitely not always the case as it is universal and dependent on the child (pg 316).
It is very important to take note as to everyone having different parenting styles as they believe this is how I want to raise my child. Baumrind’s Styles of Care giving are split into 3 parenting styles which includes Authoritarian, Permissive, and lastly Authoritative. To begin, Authoritarian is a seemingly high expectation and not being considerate to how the child feels as I know my father had grew up with this parenting style by my great grandfather’s care giving styles. Then the Permissive parenting style includes a high rate of communication between the parent and the young child with little to no punishment for actions. Then comes the Authoritative style which includes limitations for the child with flexibility for the child within rules placed upon them. There’s this technical fourth style of Neglectful but I find this style absolutely horrible for the child in many ways and I personally know someone who had this style of caregiving in their life and its incredibly unfortunate to see. (PPT 19/20 & Pgs 324/325). Discipline is a difficult topic to discuss as it is objective and can have many feelings as to what to people believe is a proper form of discipline. Some is shown in the form of giving the child a timeout to exclude them from playing as a punishment whereas some parents believe spanking or for some psychological (in which I believe should never be done to a child to potentially believe your love will be withdrawn) as proper when this is subjective and has differentiating answers (PPT 39. As I am simply just a big brother I do very little discipline as I feel I shouldn’t discipline at all knowing I am her brother figure.
Self-Control & Self-Regulation Video: The self-regulation video had brought back memories of my childhood as they had did this ‘test’ on my while I had attended church with my grandma and my late grandfather. I had even asked my 5 year old sister on her thoughts of this marshmallow challenge and her answer was that she would wait it it out as it is much more rewarding to receive to of them a short time later rather then to have the immediate satisfaction of just simply one. As a young child would experience, it is oh so tempting to eat the marshmallow as it is right in front of your eyes and within grasp. As Dr.Barcellos has mentioned in her TED talk, people decide upon choosing something which will give them immediate satisfaction rather then awaiting an even greater reward. The studies have also shown according to Dr. Barcellos, by having self-control and resisting temptation, is important for many domains of our lives. By having a commitment contract, this gives you a big of a motivation to reward yourself for breaking a habit for example smoking, as this smoking negatively impacts your life and with this contract, it will have you resist temptation of smoking a cigarette and will positively assist you in following the plans you have arranged for yourself in the future.
One of the key points I found interesting was how the Body changes. As a child get older their body changes such as height and weight. “During early childhood, proportions shift radically: Children slim down as the lower body lengthens and fat turns to muscle” (pg. 241). One of the factors for a child’s growth is their nutrition and how active they are. One of the biggest issues America faces is obesity, some parents believe that children can eat whatever they want as long as the child is happy. For example, many children would pick a McDonald’s burger, fries, and soda over a Sandwich, apple, and juice. “Children in low-income families are especially vulnerable to obesity…” (PowerPoint). Some children who live in low-income families sometimes have nutritional deficiencies due to relying on fast food. These children will lack iron, zinc, calcium, and vitamins that are essential for one to grow. The lack of these nutrients will cause children to grow at a slower pace. Something may also affect a child in being obese is not being active which causes a child’s metabolism to process food at a slower pace if they lack exercise. In today’s generation, children are not as active as before with technology advancing it has become a problem. I remember when I was young, I was always out running around in the house playing with my family and neighbors. It was always an issue for my mom to get us back inside the house because we wanted to stay out and play. What I also found interesting is the Brain development, children become better at controlling their emotions with strangers. “The primary reason for faster thinking is the new extensive myelination” (PowerPoint). Myelination speeds of the neurotransmitter to improve memory and improve their impulse control. What is important for a parent to know is the way a child’s body changes and the nutrition a child needs to grow and be healthy.
In this chapter, we learned more about Piaget: preoperational intelligence, which is the second of four periods of cognitive development. This is where children start to see/think differently. Children start to use their imagination or what is called “animism”. Children believe that certain objects are live and that certain nonhuman animals have the same characteristics as a child. Piaget noted four limitations: centration, focus on appearance, static reasoning, and irreversibility. Centration is where a child is focused on own idea and insists on this reasoning. For example, Mom is a mother and not a sister or aunt, the mom’s role has always been that of a mother and nothing else. Focus on appearance: some children may worry about their appearance if a girl were to have short hair they believe they turned into a boy and if a boy had long hair they are girls, this doesn’t matter as long as both children are being children and playing as they should. Static reasoning children believe nothing will change and things will always stay the same. Irreversibility, when a child believes that something can’t go back to the way it used to be, “A young girl might cry because her mother put lettuce on her sandwich… she might reject the food even after the lettuce is removed…” (pg.279). Parents should know more about these concepts as it would help them have a better understanding of how children think and why they act in certain ways. I remember I use to not eat my food if my food had certain things I didn’t like and even if my mom got rid of them, I wouldn’t eat them. It wasn’t because I was troughing a tantrum but because I thought it would never be the same.
In this chapter, we will be informed about a child’s Psychological Development. One of the most important key points I found interesting if Emotional Development. Not only is this an important topic but it should be a topic that a parent should be more informed in. “Emotional regulation the ability to control when and how emotions are expressed” (pg. 311). Emotional regulations are a lifelong endeavor that is affected by the time and temperament of a child. If a child has difficulty with emotional regulation, they may suffer a psychical problem in the future. What a child can accomplish with emotional regulation is their self-esteem and self-concept. Children will start to understand more of who he or she is, for example, my niece who is 3 years old enjoys playing with her dolls but doesn’t like to be considered a baby. She doesn’t like to be considered a baby because of her younger brother who is a baby she sees the way her brother is, and she believes she is better than him. “Lack of emotional regulation may be an early sign of psychopathology” (PowerPoint 9). We also learn how child emotions are used externally and internally. Parents need to know these concepts to understand how their kids are feeling or why they express themselves a certain way. A way to help regulate their emotions is by their parent nurture. If a toy were to break a parent shouldn’t scream at their child but instead help them by comforting them to regulate their emotions.
Self-regulation is a process where a child’s brain goes through for them to have the ability to control their behaviors in certain situations. Self-Control is about a conscious awareness of our thoughts and emotions where they are competent in handling emotions. As I watched the Marshmallow Test with the children you see how children want to eat the marshmallow but when you tell them if they wait because they may have two, they start to fidget. It’s tempting to want to eat the marshmallow because they want to eat it but with their self-control, they are rewarded with 2 marshmallows. Some of the children looked inpatient but they knew that if waiting was going to get them more it was for the best. The result when they received two marshmallows satisfied their self-control as they became happy. In the ted talk with Dr. Barcellos, people would rather be satisfied now than later. Self-control is important as it can help us with temptations throughout our lives. When you are committed to something and keep going towards that goal you know the result of that achievement and the type of satisfaction it will give you.