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Historians use two main types of documents to assess the events of the past, primary sources and secondary sources. In the study of history as an academic discipline, a primary source (also called original source or evidence) is an artifact, a document, diary, manuscript, autobiography, a recording, or any other source of information that was created at the time under study. In contrast, a secondary source of information is one that was created later by someone who did not experience first-hand or participate in the events or conditions you’re researching. For the purposes of a historical research project, secondary sources are generally scholarly books and articles. This essay asks you to examine a secondary source, identify the author’s main ideas and the evidence the author used to support the secondary source’s conclusions. You will wring as much information out of this source as you can, so that you will know how to use secondary sources in the research paper you will write for this course.

1. Read chapter 2 in your textbook, “The Invasions of America: 1492-1680,” in First Peoples: A Documentary Survey of American Indian History, Fifth Edition orFirst Peoples: A Documentary Survey of American Indian History, Sixth Edition. Pay special attention to the timelines on pages pp. 66 and 67, and the maps. Your textbook’s author, Colin Calloway, uses the Documents section that follows each chapter, to help you evaluate the primary sources he used to write the chapters in the textbook.

Now you are ready to write your first essay for this course, a secondary source analysis of chapter 2 in your textbook.

2. Use your textbook to examine the lives of the different American Indian groups Calloway documents. You have established background information about these groups through watching videos and accessing websites, but this essay should focus on the information from your textbook.

3. Remember, this is not a summary of what you have read, but your analysis of what you have read.

4. This essay will demonstrate that you have read the assigned material, internalized and contextualized the arguments Callowayis making, and that you can pull out his main ideas and evaluate the evidence he has used to prove his arguments.

Assignment Guidelines: To write this secondary source analysis paper,

A. Identify the main ideas, from chapter 2 in your textbook. What point is Calloway making in this chapter? Is there one single point or several that are connected?

B. Analyze what the textbook is telling you about European invasions of the Americas.

C. Determine what points and information the author made that supported his analysis of these invasions and their effect on American Indian peoples and cultures. If you are unsure about writing an essay for history read: Writing The Thesis and Writing Short Essays. Your paper should begin with a thesis that states your analysis of the material you have read.

D. Be careful to use your own words to write this essay. See Purdue OWL_Quoting, Paraphrasing, and Summarizing.pdf to understand how to do this effectively. You must use footnotes (Chicago Manual of Style) to cite word-for-word quotes and paraphrased information from the textbook to support your analysis, see Footnotes for the information about how to create and format footnotes in your papers for this class.

E. Your paper should be at least three pages, keyboarded in a 12-point font, with 1-inch margins all around, and double-spaced. Your paper should have a title page with your name, the date, the class, and the title of your paper. The title page does not count as one of the pages in the three-page minimum requirement for this essay. You do not need a Works Cited page since the only source is your textbook.

F. As noted above and in the syllabus and sample documents, your paper must use footnotes to cite all information that is not common knowledge and you should place quotes from your textbook in quotation marks and cite them with a footnote too. You may not use in-text parenthetical citations in this paper. You must use footnotes to cite all quotes and paraphrases.

G. Save your paper as a Microsoft Word document (.doc or docx) and submit it in the Assignment Submission box as a Word document. Do not submit your paper as a .pdf or .rtf file. Be sure you click the “submit” button to complete your submission. If submitted correctly, you will receive a submission receipt in your PPCC e-mail.

H. This essay is an exercise in synthesis. You cannot include everything you have learned about the invasions of America, but you should include those things that describe the effects of those invasions in unique ways.

Additional Information and examples:

To cite your textbook the first time the footnote should be formatted like this:

Colin Calloway, First Peoples: A Documentary Survey of American Indian History (Boston: Bedford/St. Martin’s Press, 2019), insert the number of the page that you are citing. (The publication date in the first footnote will tell me which version of the textbook you are using so be careful to use the correct publication date in your footnote).

The second time you cite the textbook you may abbreviate your footnote and it should be formatted like this:

Calloway, First Peoples, insert the number of the page that you are citing.

Do not use any online sources for this essay. Use only your textbook.

Review Footnotes and look at the Chicago_Style_Example_Paper_Footnotes to see how footnotes should look in your essay. Both files are located in the Course Introduction and Common Course Resources section. Access them here or click Content (at the top of this page) and find all of this information in the Course Introduction and Common Course Resources section of the class.

If you are unsure about creating a good paraphrase you might want to practice using the Purdue OWLParaphrase Exercises from Common Course Resources. Word-for-word quotes from your textbook must be placed in quotation marks and cited with the page number from which the quote comes. Paraphrased information that is not common knowledge must be cited, but since a paraphrase is written in your own words it should not be placed in quotation marks.

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